600 words about Depression and Immune Function

English Task Text Purpose Audience assignment help
February 24, 2021
For your final, you will write a 4-5 page paper answering the following questions: What should your community (neighborhood/city/etc.) do to reduce crime? What are the theoretical foundations of these strategies/policies/programs? The purpose of this assignment is to showcase your in-depth understanding of the theories that we have studied this term and your understanding of their policy/program implications. The focus of this class has been on criminological theories. Please do not only focus on the first question! For example, you could argue that King County should ban the box on housing and job applications and then explain how banning the box draws on labeling theory, which states that when people are labeled as criminal they may have less opportunities available to them and may resort to criminal behavior. Or, you could argue that the Washington should seek to ensure that everyone who breaks the law is caught and punished quickly and then explain how this draws on ideas of rational choice, which states that people choose to commit crimes and that if there is a quick, certain and proportional deterrent (punishment), fewer people will commit crimes. I would recommend focusing on 1-3 policies/programs. I wouldn’t recommend going over 3 because I don’t know if you’ll have enough space. I purposefully made this assignment about “your community” and you are welcome to understand that phrase in whatever way you want to. You could write about your neighborhood, city, the State of Washington, or a non-geographical community, such as Highline. You are the expert – no need to do additional research, unless you want to. I look forward to learning from you! Length/Format: The paper should be 4-5 pages, double-spaced in 12 point font. It should use an APA citation style. Subject Specifics: Your paper must show a thorough understanding of how criminological theory relates to your recommended policies/programs. Content: look to see that you have incorporated the following in the paper itself: A specific and defined thesis A fully developed introduction, body, and conclusion. Please use sub-headings to help organize your paper. Refer to the suggested outline for your paper below. Documentation of sources cited using APA style in the body and the Works Cited page No typos, careless errors, or proofreading mistakes that decrease credibility Suggested Outline for your Paper You do not need to use this sample outline, but I would recommend reading through it carefully, so that you can get a sense of what I am hoping you will cover in your paper. Introduction – brief introduction to the topic, why does it matter? End with your argument (thesis). Why were you drawn to this topic? Why is it important? What is the community that you are End with your thesis: I believe that my community (for example, Highline) should do X, Y, and Z to reduce crime. (Please note – you are welcome to only focus on one type of program/strategy! I wouldn’t recommend choosing more than three.) Background information about your community (for example Highline) What have you noticed to be big crime problems for this community? Explanation of your first policy/program proposal What would this policy/program proposal look like? Are you advocating for longer sentences? More mentoring? Job programs? Cleaning up graffiti? What theoretical foundation does this policy/program proposal come out of? Is it labeling theory? Rational choice? Psychopathy? Social disorganization? Please make sure that you give a thorough explanation of the theory! Explain fully what the theory means. Is there evidence to support it? Is it a psychological theory, sociological etc.? Might there be limitations of this policy/program proposal? Explanation of your second policy/program proposal (if necessary) What would this policy/program proposal look like? Are you advocating for longer sentences? More mentoring? Job programs? Cleaning up graffiti? What theoretical foundation does this policy/program proposal come out of? Is it labeling theory? Rational choice? Psychopathy? Social disorganization? Please make sure that you give a thorough explanation of the theory! Explain fully what the theory means. Is there evidence to support it? Is it a psychological theory, sociological etc.? Might there be limitations of this policy/program proposal? Explanation of your third policy/program proposal (if necessary) What would this policy/program proposal look like? Are you advocating for longer sentences? More mentoring? Job programs? Cleaning up graffiti? What theoretical foundation does this policy/program proposal come out of? Is it labeling theory? Rational choice? Psychopathy? Social disorganization? Please make sure that you give a thorough explanation of the theory! Explain fully what the theory means. Is there evidence to support it? Is it a psychological theory, sociological etc.? Might there be limitations of this policy/program proposal? Conclusion – re-state your argument Remind the reader of your overall argument (thesis) again. Do you think that there are any reasons why these policy/program suggestions could not be implemented?
February 24, 2021

600 words about Depression and Immune Function

Depression and Immune Function

The body manifests what the mind harbors.
—Jerry Augustine, Former American baseball player

If the body be feeble, the mind will not be strong.
—Thomas Jefferson, American co-author of the Declaration of Independence

These quotes illustrate what researchers know about how the condition of the mind and the body influence one another. In fact, research suggests that severe depression may decrease the number of immune factors in the body affecting immune responses such as inflammation. The impact of less immune factors could lead to chronic diseases. For those battling chronic diseases, research supports that these individuals might be more susceptible to depression. When it comes to health, the mind and the body are engaged in an interrelated and bi-directional relationship.

To prepare for this Assignment, search the Walden Library and select two research studies that examine the relationship between depression and inflammation.

The Assignment:

In a Word document, respond to the following questions in a short-answer bulleted format:

  • What are two symptoms of depression? Provide a description for both.
  • What are two symptoms of inflammation? Provide a description for both.
  • What are two similarities between depression and inflammation at the cellular level?
  • What were the results of the two research studies that you selected that examined depression and inflammation?
  • Describe two influences that these research results might have on the treatment of depression.

Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation.

READINGS

  • Contrada, R. J. (2011). The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
    • Chapter 5, “Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Sequelae of Immune System Activation” (pp. 65–76)
    • Chapter 25, “Stress and Depression” (pp. 345–358)
    • Chapter 26, “Stressors and Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence,” (pp. 359–372)
    • Chapter 27, “Physical Health Outcomes of Trauma,” (pp. 373–384)
  • Kendall-Tackett, K. (Ed.). (2010). The psychoneuroimmunology of chronic disease: Exploring the links between inflammation, stress, and illness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    • Chapter 5, “Depression, Hostility, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Inflammation: The Corrosive Health Effects of Negative Mental States” (pp. 113–131)
    • Chapter 6, “Cognitive and Behavioral Reactions to Stress Among Adults with PTSD: Implications for Immunity and Health” (pp. 133–158)
    • Chapter 9, “Treatments for Depression That Lower Inflammation: Additional Support for an Inflammatory Etiology of Depression” (pp. 219–242)
  • Altemus, M., Dhabhar, F., & Ruirong, Y. (2006). Immune Function in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071(1), 167–183.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Dantzer, R. (2012). Depression and inflammation: An intricate relationship. Biological Psychiatry, 71(1), 4–5.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Dantzer, R., O’Connor, J. C., Freund, G. G., Johnson, R. W., & Kelley, K. W. (2008). From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(1), 46–56.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Gill, J. M., Saligan, L., Woods, S., & Page, G. (2009). PTSD is associated with an excess of inflammatory immune activities. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 45(4), 262–277.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Gill, J., Vythilingam, M., & Page, G. G. (2008). Low cortisol, high DHEA, and high levels of stimulated TNF-α, and IL-6 in women with PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(6), 530–539.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Howk, C., & Bennett, M. (2010). Immune function and health outcomes in women with depression. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 4, 3–11.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Leonard, B. E. (2010). The concept of depression as a dysfunction of the immune system. Current Immunology Reviews, 6(3), 205–212.
    Copyright 2010 by Bentham Science Publishers, Ltd. Reprinted by permission of Bentham Science Publishers, Ltd., via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  • Sarapas, C., Cai, G., Bierer, L. M., Golier, J. A., Galea, S., Ising, M.,…Yehuda, R. (2011). Genetic markers for PTSD risk and resilience among survivors of the World Trade Center attacks. Disease Markers, 30(2–3), 101–110.
    Retrieved from Walden Library databases.
  • Scott-Tilley, D., Tilton, A., & Sandel, M. (2010). Biologic correlates to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in female victims of intimate partner violence: Implications for practice. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 26–36.
    Retrieved from Walden Library databases.
  • Wilson, D. R. (2010). Health consequences of childhood sexual abuse. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 56–64.
    Retrieved from Walden Library databases.
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2009). Key molecule in inflammation-related depression confirmed. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2009/key-molecule-in-inflammation-related-depression-confirmed.shtml

Optional Resources

  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). Errant stress/immune indicators detected in depression-prone women’s sweat. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2008/errant-stress-immune-indicators-detected-in-depression-prone-womens-sweat.shtml
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2011). How are depression and chronic pain linked? Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-and-chronic-pain/index.shtml
  • Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M., Zahorska-Markiewicz, B., Kocełak, P., Janowska, J., Semik-Grabarczyk, E., Wikarek, T., …Dabrowski, P. (2009). Is chronic inflammation a possible cause of obesity-related depression? Mediators of Inflammation, 1–4.

 

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