Submit an outline for your research paper. The outline should make clear how you are going to break down and organize your essay, what the purpose of each paragraph will be, what information you will include in your introduction, and what quotes will go in each paragraph. The outline should also include a draft of your thesis statement and all topic sentences.
2 diffrent ones
use my paper to answer an outline and my annotated
Annotated Bibliography: due 10/26/2020, handed in on Blackboard
The purpose of an annotated bibliography is to collect all of the sources you have found at this point, and analyze them for content, quality, and utility. The annotated bibliography is not just a list of your sources; it is an explanation and analysis of each one. There is no introduction or conclusion required for this assignment: You can jump right into the sources and your discussion of them.
See Seagull handbook, pages 74-78, for more information. Each source should be about 1-2 paragraphs.
For each source, you must include:
Summarize the source. What is it? Where did you find it? What is it about? What information is in it?
Evaluate the source. Who is the author, and how credible are they? How credible is the publication where you found it? Does the source seem biased? If so, how, and in what direction?
Given the source’s contents and quality, will you use it in your research paper? What will you use it for? How will it contribute to your final product?
At the end of the annotated bibliography, make a brief statement of how complete your research is for this paper. Is there information that these sources didn’t cover, that you still need? Are you missing any sources? Do you have a plan to get them?
1918-1919 Pandemic, Influenza (Flu)
The influenza pandemic of 1918 was the most severe pandemic in recent history. There was so much that came with this pandemic and it scarred many people. As we, in the present, are in a current pandemic, we can imagine how it was in the past as well. About one hundred years later and basically a new version of this influenza virus has been presented. Pandemics as a whole are scary as the area affected basically has to shut down to try to recover from the loss they are experiencing. The amount of people affected by this pandemic was insane, there was many ways of spreading this virus, and when it came to the daily life in this time it was very difficult to live through. In the United States, it was first identified in military personnel in spring 1918. It is estimated that about 500 million people or one-third of the world’s population became infected with the virus. The number of deaths was estimated to be at least 50 million worldwide about 675,000 ocurring in the United States.
Mortality was high in people younger than five years old, 20-40 years old, and 65 years and older. The high mortality in healthy people, including those in the 20 to 40-year age group, was a unique feature of this pandemic. Some people even believed they had no way of avoiding it and would go to every extent to try to avoid being infected. Sometimes though, this is not enough. The influenza virus is caused by an H1N1 virus with genes of avian origin. While the virus has been synthesized and evaluated, the properties that made it so devastating are not well understood. To better understand this deadly virus, an expert group of researchers and virus hunters set out to search for the lost 1918 virus, sequence its genome, recreate the virus in a highly safe and regulated laboratory setting at the CDC, and ultimately study its secrets to better prepare for future pandemics. With no vaccine to protect against influenza infection with no antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that can be associated with influenza infections, control efforts worldwide were limited to non-pharmaceutical interventions such as isolation, quarantine, social distancing, good personal hygiene, use of disinfectants, and limitations of public gatherings, which were applied unevenly. Public health professionals on the home front, including many volunteer nurses, deployed their limited medical armamentarium as they tirelessly tended to the ill and attempted to contain the spread of the disease. Across the nation, hundreds of thousands of personal tragedies unfolded and irrevocably changed the lives of those who survived. Children were orphaned, a humongous number of young adults died, and for a brief period fear, suspicion, and panic prevailed. Yet even in this trying context, the historical record reveals that many Americans responded courageously during the crisis.
Pandemics typically unfold across a wide spectrum of communities that are diverse in race, ethnicity, age, gender, and socioeconomic means. There is a delicate balance between the virus and the host. As well as the social piece that influences the timing, transmission patterns, spread, and severity of the pandemic. It is not uncommon for pandemics to impact some sectors of society. Young adults may be severely impacted by infections, complications, and death in contrast to epidemics of seasonal influenza, which tend to hit hardest at the extremes of age. Morbidity, suffering, and even mortality rates may also be exaggerated by preexisting differences and disparities in underlying conditions both medical and cultural, such as war, poverty, crowding, and slavery.
After long of having no vaccine or cure for this disease, in about the 1930’s vaccination against influenza began. Large-scale availability in the United States began in 1945. Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. New versions of the vaccines are developed twice a year, as the influenza virus rapidly changes. Even though their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that vaccination against influenza reduces sickness, medical visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Immunized workers who do catch the flu return to work half a day sooner on average. Vaccine effectiveness in those over sixty-five-years-old remains uncertain due to a lack of high-quality research. Vaccinating children may protect those around them. If we are vaccinating as many children and individuals as possible, we can limit the spread of the virus. The CDC recommends yearly vaccination for nearly all people over the age of six months, especially those at high risk. High risk groups should take vaccination more seriously. These groups would include pregnant women, the elderly, children between six months and five years of age, those with certain health problems, and those who work in healthcare. The vaccines are generally safe. It is also common for a fever to occur in five to ten percent of children vaccinated. Temporary muscle pains or feelings of tiredness may occur as well. An interesting point about this vaccine is that even though most of them are produced using eggs, they are still recommended for people who have severe egg allergies. However, influenza vaccines are not recommended in those who have had a severe allergy to previous versions of the vaccine itself. Now, vaccines are very common and you can go down the street to your nearest pharmacy and you can get vaccinated as you need.
The influenza pandemic quickly became one of the most severe pandemics in recent history. A pandemic as it is, is very critical and can drive a lot of people trying to avoid the disease crazy. In terms of what happens, the individuals in the surrounding area should be extremely cautious of the events happening around them. The overall health of the people should be everyone’s number one priority. As for this pandemic, it is not uncommon for the individuals affected to feel out of the normal and many deaths had risen from this considering the fact that a vaccine was not produced into a while later.
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