Senses and Comprehensive
1. Be able to explain how cells with the same DNA can end up being so very different.
2. For each macromolecule (protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid) name at least two places it is used in the body, and how their properties contribute to their function.
3. Trace the path of gene expression of both a cytosolic protein, and a protein destined for export out of the cell (like a hormone).
4. Name tissues you would expect to see many extracellular proteins in.
5. Define homeostasis. What is the role of negative feedback?
6. Can positive feedback be part of a homeostatic mechanism?
7. Give examples of homeostatic mechanisms in every organ system we examine.
8. Give at least one example of positive feedback discussed in an organ system in class.
9. Explain why active transport will only occur in a living cell, while facilitated diffusion might still occur in a dead cell.
10. Define osmosis and diffusion.
11. Inorganic molecules are very important in the body. This semester, we have focused in on in on water, Ca2+, Na+, and Cl-. For the ions, where and how are they used in the body?
12. Explain how the skin and skeletal system are associated with each other.
13. What are the ways calcium is used in the skeletal and muscular system? Is it used in any other systems? How?
14. We have often talked about the presence and absence of blood vessels in various tissues. Why does this matter? Name at least two specific places in different organ systems where this is relevant and explain why.
15. Know the terms osteoblast and osteoclast and why they are relevant.
16. Explain how to keep your bones healthy.
17. Explain how a muscle contracts at the sarcomere level, using the terms myosin, actin, sarcomere and Z-lines. What slides past each other and what gets shorter?
18. Explain how ATP is used in your muscles.
19. Compare and contrast the 3 types of muscles and how they are used in the body.
20. Explain how an action potential is generated and transmitted. Why can’t it go backwards? What ultimately stops it?
21. Explain how neurotransmitters work. Include how and where they are released and how they are turned off.
22. Know the functions of the cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, Broca’s area, medulla oblongata, Wernicke area, corpus callosum, pituitary, amygdala, and each of the lobes.