September 9, 2020
Max is 70 years old and in good health. His modest living needs are met by his public and private pensions, supplemented by withdrawals from his RRIF….
September 9, 2020


Using the following formula, solve the problem below, and show your work.

TWA = CaTa + CbTb + … + CnTn


TWA=Time-Weighted Average
Ca=Concentration of contaminant during the sampling period “a
Ta=Time of sampling period “a
Cb=Concentration of contaminant during the sampling period “b”
Tb=Time of sampling period “b
Cn=Concentration of contaminant during the sampling period “n“, where “n” is the last of a series of contaminants
Tn=Time of sampling period “n


Note: All concentrations are in parts contaminant per million parts of air or milligrams of contaminant per cubic meter of air.

Air Sampling Problem: You are an industrial hygienist that is conducting personal sampling on a worker who is overseeing a production process involving use of toluene (Note: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has established a Permissible Exposure Limit of 200 parts per million (ppm)). You are able to measure the following exposures:

500 ppm for 1 hour

100 ppm for 4 hours

225 ppm for 3 hours

What is the calculated TWA? What would you tell plant management in terms of exposure to toluene and compliance with the PEL?

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