Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Compliance Programs
July 15, 2019
Spanish Lesson 1
July 15, 2019

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Editio

Transcultural Health Care
Haitian Americans
Larry Purnell, PhD, RN, FAAN

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Overview

  • Haiti shares the Island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic.
  • Dominican Republic and Haiti have little in common culturally.
  • Haiti is the poorest country in the Western hemisphere with a per capita income of less than $450.

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Overview Continued

  • Over 500,000 Haitians live in the United States, with more arriving after the Haitian earthquake in 2010. Their numbers may exceed 1.5 million.
  • Most live in NYC, FL, Boston, Chicago, and CA
  • Most come here for better economic opportunities and political freedom

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Overview Continued

  • Haitians are a mix of Arawak Indian, Spanish, French, and African Black resulting in sharp class stratification and color consciousness
  • 1791 ended slavery in Haiti

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Communications

  • Languages are primarily Creole (for the poor) and French (wealthier) and English although many speak all three languages
  • Black, mulatto, or white and colors in-between
  • Most Blacks are poor and underprivileged

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Overview

  • Early immigration to the United States was the wealthier groups for education, followed by general immigration after 1920 and the United States occupation of Haiti
  • After 1964, Duvalier became president for life, mass exodus because of oppression politically and economically

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Overview Continued

  • 1980 immigration with the Mariel Boat Lift from Cuba brought first legal and then the Boat People from Haiti.
  • Many had left Haiti to Cuba in previous generations and this group joined in coming to the United States.
  • Resulted in Cuban-Haitian entrant: status pending

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Overview Continued

  • French model of education with liberal arts, philosophy, classics, and languages—Latin and Greek and de-emphasizes technical and vocational training and the social and physical sciences
  • Educated Haitians are multilingual
  • Only 15% to 20% receive an education—high illiteracy rates

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Communications

  • French and Creole official languages
  • 15% speak French, 100% speak Creole
  • Oral communication patterns to pass on culture through proverbs and storytelling
  • Smile timidly to hide lack of education and understanding
  • Nod of the head does not mean “I understand”

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Communications Continued

  • Most are private individuals who do not want friends or family to interpret for them
  • Traditional Haitians do not usually maintain eye contact
  • Touching is common
  • Women may hold hands while walking in public

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Communications Continued

  • Most are present oriented out of necessity, the past is cherished and the future is predetermined —many remain rather fatalistic
  • Punctuality is not valued—flexible time is the norm

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Communications Continued

  • First and middle name are usually hyphenated
  • Woman takes her husband’s name upon marriage
  • Last names are usually French or Arabic in origin
  • Formality in name is the norm

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Family Roles

  • Matriarchal or shared decision-making is the norm—although there are variations
  • Male is the primary breadwinner
  • Concept of machismo prevails
  • Not uncommon to have more than one mistress or for women male partners

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Family Roles Continued

  • Children are valued and expected to be well behaved—otherwise physical punishment may be used
  • Most feel US society is too permissive
  • Boys are given more freedom and permissive behavior
  • Girls cannot go out alone until age 17+

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Family Roles Continued

  • Nuclear, consanguine, and affinal relatives are the norm
  • Family lineage is what denotes respect, not money
  • Children expected to care for parents when self-care is a concern

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Family Roles Continued

  • Single parenting is well accepted
  • Homosexuality is taboo—if known, total denial from both sides
  • Mistress supports her children with little to no financial help

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

ClickerCheck

The nurse is providing insulin injection instructions to Mrs. Paul, a 44-year-old Haitian. When the nurse asks her if she understands the instructions, she nods. To assure understanding, the nurse should

Ask her to repeat the instructions.

Give her written instruction to ensure.

Have her demonstrate an injection.

Give the instructions to a family member.

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Correct Answer

Correct answer: C

The best way to assure understanding is for the patient to demonstrate the injection.

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Health Conditions

  • Cholera, parasitosis, and malaria without malaria control measures
  • Hepatitis, tuberculosis, venereal disease have high rates
  • Most test positive for TBC because of Bacille bilie de Calmette-Guerin vaccinations
  • High rates of diabetes and hypertension

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Nutrition

  • For many, food means survival
  • Prefer eating at home and dislike fast food
  • When hospitalized, many prefer to fast rather than eat hospital food
  • Dislike yogurt, runny eggs, and cottage cheese
  • Staples are rice and beans, plantains, salad

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Nutrition Continued

  • Lists of foods are in the Haitian–American chapter
  • Foods are classified as cold (fret) and hot (cho), acid and non-acid, and heavy and light
  • Must balance fret and cho foods or illness occurs

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Nutrition Continued

  • Cough medicines are hot, laxatives are cold
  • Avoid citrus, causes acne
  • After ironing do not open refrigerator door
  • Do not shower when you are hot
  • Do not put warm feet directly on the cold floor

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Nutrition Continued

  • Diet high in carbohydrates and fat
  • Being overweight is seen as positive
  • Major portion of meat protein is given to men

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Pregnancy

  • Pregnancy is not an illness so why seek prenatal care
  • Spicy foods will cause the fetus to be irritable
  • Vegetables and red fruits build blood for the fetus
  • Increased salivation—“use a spit cup”

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Pregnancy Continued

  • Prefer natural childbirth, although changing somewhat in the United States
  • Men usually not present during labor—female family members are preferred
  • Dress warmly and stay in bed 2 to 3 days after birth and use an abdominal binder to close the bones so cold air does not enter and cause illness

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Postpartum

  • Three baths postpartum, more difficult in the United States
  • Avoid food believed to increase vaginal discharge—lima beans, okra, mushrooms
  • Other foods are strength foods
  • Breastfeeding is encouraged
  • All infants receive lok to help meconium pass

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

ClickerCheck

Most Haitians practice the hot and cold dichotomy of foods. This is know in Haitian Creole as

a. Yin and yang.

b. Calor y frio.

c. Fret and cho.

d. Am and duong.

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Correct Answer

Correct answer: C

Fret and cho are the Haitian Creole words for hot and cold.

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Death Rituals

  • Prefer to die at home
  • Death watch by family who brings religious pictures and have bedside prayer
  • Male kinsman responsible for funeral arrangements, notifying all family members, and coordinating the service
  • Preburial veye to celebrate deceased’s life

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Death Rituals Continued

  • Seven consecutive days of prayer in the home to help the passage of the soul into the next life
  • Believe in resurrection so no cremation
  • Autopsy may relieve fear of deceased becoming a zombie

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Spirituality

  • Family is the center of life
  • Catholicism is the primary religion of Haiti
  • Religious practices combined with voodooism
  • Loa, the gods or spirits, believed to receive powers from God can provide protection and wealth

*

Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Healthcare Practices

  • Good health is balance between hot and cold, eat well, be plump, pray, be free of pain, eat and sleep right, and exercise
  • Illness is seen as punishment and comes of two types—natural and supernatural
  • Natural illnesses of two types—short duration caused by environmental factors

 

“Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!”

The post Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition appeared first on nursing assignment tutor.

 

"Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!"

Essay Writing Service